[box type="shadow"]The Department of Transportation-issued regulations detailing requirements for certification of electronically controlled pneumatic brakes used on trains. The ECP brake system, which is a new design, reduces the risk of runaway trains because it continuously recharges the brake pipe. In older brake systems, a brake pipe cannot be recharged until the brakes are completely released by the operator. [/box]

[box type="shadow"]Braking Systems
Brakes for passenger cars as well as multi-utility vehicles and trucks must be hydraulic and/or electric. The brakes must be able to operate safely under normal conditions as well as in emergencies. All vehicles must also have a parking brake system. In addition, passenger vehicles and multi-purpose utility vehicles that weigh below 7,000 pounds and trucks and other vehicles over 10,000 must pass tests that measure braking distance before being sold to consumers.

System Components
FMVSS stipulates that passenger cars, motorcycles, trucks, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trailers and buses must have not only brakes, but also air and vacuum brake hoses, and brake hose assemblies or brake hose end fittings. The aim of this regulation is to avoid brake failure from pressure caused on the braking system.

Minimum Braking Distance
While tractors do not have minimum braking distance requirements, passenger and commercial vehicles between 7,000 and 10,000 pounds must have an anti-lock braking system. They must also meet minimum braking distance requirements, which vary by type of vehicle. The vehicles must pass tests demonstrating that they can brake effectively in wet and slippery conditions as well as in curves and other emergency driving conditions. Before vehicles are released to the general public, brake testers inspect them to ensure these standards are met.